How To Write Object-Oriented Programs (OOP) in Python?

Published On: Wed, 29 Nov 2023 Updated On: Wed, 29 Nov 2023

Power of Object-Oriented Programming(OOP) in Python

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a paradigm that revolutionized software development by organizing code around objects, entities that encapsulate data and behavior. Python, a versatile and popular programming language, embraces OOP concepts, empowering developers to build complex and scalable applications. In this blog, we will dive into the core principles of OOP, explore its advantages, and learn how to implement classes, objects, attributes, and methods. Additionally, we will delve into encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism, understanding how they enhance code reusability and maintainability. Lastly, we will introduce essential OOP design patterns that optimize software architecture and promote efficient development.

Overview of OOP Principles and Advantages

Object-Oriented Programming revolves around four fundamental principles: encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism. These principles offer several advantages over traditional procedural programming:

Advantages of OOP

Modularity - OOP breaks down complex problems into manageable units (objects), making code more organized and maintainable.

Reusability - OOP promotes code reuse by creating reusable classes, reducing redundancy, and enhancing productivity.

Flexibility - OOP allows developers to modify and extend existing classes without affecting the entire codebase, offering greater flexibility in software development.

Readability - With well-defined classes and methods, OOP code becomes more readable and understandable, benefiting collaboration among developers.

Scalability - OOP's modular nature allows applications to scale gracefully, accommodating changes and expansions smoothly.

Understanding Classes, Objects, Attributes, and Methods

Classes and Objects

In Python, a class is a skeleton for creating objects with similar characteristics and behavior. An object is an instance of a class, representing a unique entity in the application.

Code Example

class Car:
    # Class attribute
    wheels = 4

    def __init__(self, make, model):
        # Instance attributes
        self.make = make
        self.model = model

# Creating objects
car1 = Car("Toyota", "Camry")
car2 = Car("Honda", "Civic")


Attributes are variables that belong to objects and represent their characteristics.

Code Example

# Accessing attributes
print(car1.make)    # Output: "Toyota"
print(car2.model)   # Output: "Civic"


Methods are functions defined within a class and are used to perform actions related to the objects.

Code Example

class Car:
    # ...

    def start_engine(self):
        return f"{self.make} {self.model} engine started."

# Calling a method
print(car1.start_engine())  # Output: "Toyota Camry engine started."

Encapsulation, Abstraction, Inheritance, and Polymorphism


Encapsulation restricts access to specific attributes and methods, preventing external interference. This protects the integrity of data and implementation details.

Code Example

class BankAccount:
    def __init__(self, balance):
        self.__balance = balance   # Encapsulated attribute

    def get_balance(self):
        return self.__balance

    def deposit(self, amount):
        self.__balance += amount

# External access is restricted
account = BankAccount(1000)
print(account.__balance)  # Raises AttributeError
print(account.get_balance())  # Output: 1000


Abstraction focuses on exposing only essential features of an object, hiding unnecessary details to simplify its usage.

Code Example

from abc import ABC, abstractmethod

class Shape(ABC):
    def area(self):

class Circle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius

    def area(self):
        return 3.14 * self.radius ** 2

# Abstract class with an abstract method enforces implementation in derived classes


Inheritance allows a class (subclass) to inherit attributes and methods from another class (superclass), promoting code reuse and hierarchical organization.

Code Example

class Animal:
    def sound(self):
        return "Some generic sound"

class Dog(Animal):
    def sound(self):
        return "Woof!"

dog = Dog()
print(dog.sound())  # Output: "Woof!"


Polymorphism empowers objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass, simplifying code and promoting flexibility.

Code Example

def animal_sound(animal):
    return animal.sound()

cat = Cat()
dog = Dog()

print(animal_sound(cat))  # Output: "Meow!"
print(animal_sound(dog))  # Output: "Woof!"

Introduction to OOP Design Patterns

OOP Design Patterns are proven solutions to common software design problems. Some popular design patterns include Singleton, Factory, Observer, and MVC (Model-View-Controller).

Code Example

# Singleton Pattern
class Singleton:
    _instance = None

    def __new__(cls):
        if cls._instance is None:
            cls._instance = super(Singleton, cls).__new__(cls)
        return cls._instance

# Usage
obj1 = Singleton()
obj2 = Singleton()

print(obj1 is obj2)  # Output: True


Object-Oriented Programming is a powerful paradigm that brings order and efficiency to Python programming. Developers can build modular and scalable applications by understanding classes, objects, attributes, and methods. Embracing encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism enhances code quality and maintainability. Additionally, OOP design patterns optimize software architecture, making it easier to solve complex design problems. Leveraging the advantages of OOP, Python developers can craft elegant and robust applications that stand the test of time. Happy coding!

How To Write Object-Oriented Programs (OOP) in Python?

Reader Comments

Add a Comment